Perhaps repeated interactions can solve the prisoner’s dilemma…

**Takeaway Points**

- Conflict is the only solution to one-shot prisoner’s dilemma play.
- If states play repeatedly but the end of the interaction is known ahead of time, the inevitability of future conflict sabotages cooperation in the present.
- If repeated play solves the prisoner’s dilemma, it must be that states do not know when their interaction will end.